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The Twelve Days of NoSQL: Day Twelve: Concluding Remarks

January 10, 2014 Leave a comment

Originally posted on So Many Oracle Manuals, So Little Time:

Day One: Disruptive Innovation
Day Two: Requirements and Assumptions
Day Three: Functional Segmentation
Day Four: Sharding
Day Five: Replication and Eventual Consistency
Day Six: The False Premise of NoSQL
Day Seven: Schemaless Design
Day Eight: Oracle NoSQL Database
Day Nine: NoSQL Taxonomy
Day Ten: Big Data
Day Eleven: Mistakes of the relational camp
Day Twelve: Concluding Remarks

On the twelfth day of Christmas, my true love gave to me
Twelve drummers drumming.

Poster by Xavier Romero-Frias

Poster by Xavier Romero-Frias

The relational camp put productivity, ease-of-use, and logical elegance front and center. However, the mistakes and misconceptions of the relational camp prevent mainstream database management systems from achieving the performance levels required by modern applications. For example, Dr. Codd forbade nested relations (a.k.a.unnormalized relations) and mainstream database management systems equate the normalized set with the stored set.

The NoSQL camp on the other hand put performance, scalability, and reliability front and center. Understandably the NoSQL…

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Categories: Uncategorized

The Twelve Days of NoSQL: Day Nine: NoSQL Taxonomy

On the ninth day of Christmas, my true love gave to me
Nine ladies dancing.

(Yesterday: Oracle NoSQL Database)(Tomorrow: Big Data in a Nutshell)

NoSQL databases can be classified into the following categories:

  • Key-value stores: The archetype is Amazon Dynamo of which DynamoDB is the commercial successor. Key-value stores basically allow applications to “put” and “get” values but each product has differentiators. For example, DynamoDB supports “tables” (namespaces) while Oracle NoSQL Database offers “major” and “minor” key paths.
  • Document stores: While key-value stores treat values as uninterpreted strings, document stores allow values to be managed using formats such as JSON (JavaScript Object Notation) which are conceptually similar to XML. This allows key-value pairs to be indexed by any component of the value just as XML data can be indexed in mainstream database management systems.
  • Column-family stores: Column-family stores allow data associated with a single key to be spread over multiple storage nodes. Each storage node only stores a subset of the data associated with the key; hence the name “column-family.” A key is therefore composed of a “row key” and a “column key” in a matter analogous to the major and minor key paths of Oracle NoSQL Database.
  • Graph databases: Graph databases are non-relational databases that use graph concepts such as nodes and edges to solve certain classes of problems: for example; the shortest route between two towns on a map. The concepts of functional segmentation, sharding, replication, eventual consistency, and schemaless design do not apply to graph databases so I will not discuss graph databases.

NoSQL products are numerous and rapidly evolving. There is a crying need for a continuously updated encyclopedia of NoSQL products but none exists. There is a crying need for an independent benchmarking organization but none exists. My best advice is to do a proof of concept (POC) as well as a PSR (Performance Scalability Reliability) test before committing to using a NoSQL product. Back in the day, in 1985 to be precise, Dr. Codd had words of advice for those who were debating between the new relational products and the established pre-relational products of his day. The advice is as solid today as it was in Dr. Codd’s day.

“Any buyer confronted with the decision of which DBMS to acquire should weigh three factors heavily.

The first factor is the buyer’s performance requirements, often expressed in terms of the number of transactions that must be executed per second. The average complexity of each transaction is also an important consideration. Only if the performance requirements are extremely severe should buyers rule out present relational DBMS products on this basis. Even then buyers should design performance tests of their own, rather than rely on vendor-designed tests or vendor-declared strategies. [emphasis added]

The second factor is reduced costs for developing new databases and new application programs …

The third factor is protecting future investments in application programs by acquiring a DBMS with a solid theoretical foundation …

In every case, a relational DBMS wins on factors two and three. In many cases, it can win on factor one also—in spite of all the myths about performance.”

—An Evaluation Scheme for Database Management Systems that are claimed to be Relational

Also see: The Twelve Days of SQL: Day Nine: Physical database design matters

Categories: DBA, NoSQL, Oracle, SQL, Uncategorized Tags: , , ,

Solve the Oracle Database murder mystery and win a free ticket for yourself and a friend to the NoCOUG conference‏

Iggy Fernandez:

Here are the solutions that have received so far. The last one is plausible but doesn’t explain the graceful shutdown of nine databases using SHUTDOWN IMMEDIATE. The murder mystery is still unsolved.

  • “From digits 10 if 1 falls, remains is 0 (ZERO).”
  • “It’s a Cascade delete issue … If Main record is deleted, then any corresponding foreign records too would be deleted.”
  • “Oracle does not keep any spot for the “Accidental” fall of bottles. If one bottle can fall accidently, then all ten bottles can also fall accidently. There should not be any scope for accidental falls.”
  • “Perhaps Jack connected to a CDB and since he didn’t specify a PDB name, the commands impacted all PDBs contained therein?”
  • “Since STARTUP FORCE does an SHUTDOWN ABORT/STARTUP—did he do it on a ASM Instance (NetApp storage) shared by 9 other running instances? There can only be one ASM instance per server. Other instances crashed and were restarted automatically with Oracle Restart (Oracle Grid Infrastructure)?”

Originally posted on So Many Oracle Manuals, So Little Time:

You may remember this children’s song from kindergarten or you can listen to this YouTube video:

“Ten green bottles hanging on the wall
Ten green bottles hanging on the wall
And if one green bottle should accidentally fall
There’ll be nine green bottles hanging on the wall.”

In this Oracle Database murder mystery, there were no green bottles left hanging on the wall after the first bottle fell. Send your solution to contact_nocoug@nocoug.org and receive a free ticket for yourself and a friend to the NoCOUG conference on Thursday, August 15 featuring performance guru Craig Shallahamer, a full track of Oracle Database 12c presentations, and alternative technology presentations on MySQL, NoSQL, and Big Data. Click here to review the detailed agenda.

It was a beautiful spring day. Popcorn was popping on the apricot tree. What does this have to do with databases? Nothing, but I’m trying to write…

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Categories: Uncategorized
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